A session/call ID like the one you mentioned is available in SIP communications and can be used to track information during a specific call/session. Call/session control is a layer 5 function (OSI Session layer).
However, no such corresponding field or standard is available natively in call logging or billing systems. Therefore, to coordinate and correlate data regarding several layer 5 events from distinct systems today, you must aggregate or join them at a higher layer - the application layer. A good example of how all these systems work together is seen in the SS7 protocols that currently perform these tasks in the PSTN.
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